Reference List

Recommended References

The NTNCB hopes you will find this list useful as you prepare for the Neonatal Therapy National Certification Exam. This list is extensive but not all inclusive. The references in bold text contain core knowledge, significant amounts of information, and key concepts that are critical to neonatal therapy practice.


Arvedson J, Brodsky L. (2002). Pediatric Swallowing and Feeding Assessment and Management (2nd edition). Albany, NY: Singular Publishing Group.

Case-Smith J, O’Brien J. (2014). Occupational Therapy for Children and Adolescents (7th edition). Columbus, OH: Elsevier Publishing.

Coughlin M. (2014). Transformative Nursing in the NICU: Trauma-Informed Age-Appropriate Care. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.

Fern D. (2011). A Neurodevelopmental Care Guide to Positioning and Handling the Premature, Fragile or Sick Infant. New York, New York: DF Publishing.

Goddard S. (2005). Reflexes, Learning and Behavior: A Window into the Child’s Mind. Eugene, OR: Fern Ridge Press.

Kenner C, McGrath J. (2010). Developmental Care of Newborns and Infants (2nd edition.).  Glenview, IL: National Association of Neonatal Nurses.

Tecklin J. (2008). Pediatric Physical Therapy (4th Edition). Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Vergara E, Bigsby R. (2004). Developmental and Therapeutic Interventions in the NICU. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brooks Publishing Company.

Volpe J. (2008). Neurology of the Newborn (5th Edition). Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier.

Wolf L, Glass R. (1992). Feeding and Swallowing Disorders in Infancy Assessment and Management. Austin, TX: Hammill Institute on Disabilities.


Aden U. (2014). Maternal singing for preterm infants during kangaroo care comforts both the mother and baby. Acta Paediatrica, 103(10), 995-6.

Aldridge V, Dovey T, Martin C, Meyer C. (2010). Identifying clinically relevant feeding problems and disorders. Journal of Child Health Care, 14 (3), 261-270.

Als H. (1982). Toward a Synactive Theory of Development: Promise for the assessment of infant individuality. Infant Mental Health Journal, 3, 229-243.

Als H. (2000). Program Guide Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP). NIDCAP Federation International Voice of the Newborn.

Als H. (2009). Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP): New frontier for neonatal and perinatal medicine. Journal of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, 2,135-147.

Altimier L, Phillips R. (2013). The neonatal integrative developmental care model: Seven neuroprotective core measures for family-centered developmental care. Newborn and Infant Nursing Reviews,13 (1):9-22.

Altimier L. (2015). Neuroprotective core measure 1: The healing NICU environment. Newborn and Infant Nursing Reviews, 15, 91-96.

Amaizu N, Shlman R, Schanler R, Lau C. (2008). Maturation of oral feeding skills in preterm infants. Acta Paediatrica, 97(1): p. 61-67.

Anderson P, Doyle L, Victorian Infant Collaborative Study Group. (2003). Neurobehavioral outcomes of school-age children born extremely low birth weight or very preterm in the 1990s. Journal of the American Medical Association, 289 (24):3264-72.

Barre N, Morgan A, Doyle L, Anderson P. (2011). Language abilities in children who were very preterm and/or very low birth weight: A meta-analysis. Journal of Pediatrics,158 (5): 766-774 e1.

Bingham P, Ashikaga T, Abbasi S. (2012). Relationship of Neonatal Oral Motor Assessment Scale to feeding performance of premature infants. Journal of Neonatal Nursing, 18 (1), 30-36.

Black M, Aboud F. (2011). Responsive feeding is embedded in a theoretical framework of responsive parenting. Journal of Nutrition,141(3):490-494.

Brandon D, Holditch-Davis D, Belyea M. (2002). Preterm infants born at less than 31 weeks gestation have improved growth in cycled light compared with continuous near darkness. The Journal of Pediatrics, 140(2):192-9.

Brown G. (2009). NICU noise and the preterm infant. Neonatal Network, 28(3), 165-173.Brown N, Inder T, Bear M, Hunt R, Anderson P, Doyle L. (2009). Neurobehavior at term and white and gray matter abnormalities in very preterm infants. Journal of Pediatrics,155, 32-8.

Brown N, Spittle, A. (2014). Neurobehavioral evaluation in the preterm and term infant. Current Pediatric Reviews, 10 (1):65-7.

Browne J. (2008). Chemosensory development in the fetus and newborn. Newborn and Infant Nursing Reviews, 8(4), 180-186.

Burklow K, McGrath A, Valerius K, Rudolph C. (2002). Relationship between feeding difficulties, medical complexity, and gestational age. Nutrition and Clinical Practice,17 (6), 373-8.

Caskey M, Stephens B, Tucker R, Vohr B. (2014). Adult talk in the NICU with preterm infants and developmental outcomes. Pediatrics, 133 (3):e578-84.

Chang Y, Lin C, Lin Y, Lin C. (2007). Effects of single-hole and cross- cut nipple units on feeding efficiency and physiological parameters in premature infants. Journal of Nursing Research, 15(3): 215-223.

Cleveland L. (2008). Parenting in the neonatal intensive care unit. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 37(6):666-91.

Cooper L, Morrill A, Russell R, Gooding J, Miller L, Berns S. (2014). Close to me: enhancing kangaroo care practice for NICU staff and parents. Advances in Neonatal Care, 14(6):410-23.

Coughlin M, Gibbins S, Hoath S. (2009). Core measures for developmentally supportive care in neonatal intensive care units: Theory, precedence and practice. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 65(10): 2239-48.

Crapnell T, Rogers C, Neil J, Inder T, Woodward L, Pineda R. (2013). Factors associated with feeding difficulties in the very preterm infant. Acta Pediatrica, 102(12), e539-45.

da Costa S, van den Engel-Hoek L, Bos A. (2008). Sucking and swallowing in infants and diagnostic tools. Journal of Perinatology, 28(4), 247-57.

Daily D. Ellison P. (2005). The Preemie-Neuro: A clinical neurologic examination of premature infants. Neonatal Network,24 (1), 15-22.

Dodrill P, McMahon S, Ward E, Weir K, Donovan T, Riddle B. (2004). Long-term oral sensitivity and feeding skills of low-risk pre-term infants. Early Human Development, 76, 23-37.

Dubowitz L, Ricciw K, Mercuri E. (2005). The Dubowitz neurological examination of the full-term newborn. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Review, 11(1), 52-60.

Einspieler C, Marschik P, Pansy J, Scheuchenegger A, Krieber M, Yang H, Kornacka M, Rowinska E, Soloveichick M, Bos A. (2015). The general movement optimality score: a detailed assessment of general movements during preterm and term age. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 58 (4); 361-8.

Einspieler C, Yang H, Bartl-Pokorny K, Chi X, Zang F, Marschik P, Guzzetta A, Ferrari F, Bos A, Cioni G. (2015). Are sporadic fidgety movements as clinically relevant as is their absence?  Early Human Development, 91, 247-252.

Ferrari F, Bertoncelli N, Gallo C, Roversi M, Guerra M, Ranzi A, Hadders-Algra, M. (2007). Posture and movement in healthy preterm infants in supine position in and outside the nest. Archives of Disease in Child, Fetal and Neonatal Edition, 92(5), F386-90.

Franck L, Oulton K, Bruce E. (2012). Parental involvement in neonatal pain management: An empirical and conceptual update. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 44(1):45-54.

Gelfer P, Cameron R, Masters K, Kennedy K. (2013). Integrating “Back to Sleep” recommendations into neonatal ICU practice. Pediatrics, 131(4), e1264-70.

Goldfield E, Richardson M, Lee K, Margetts S. (2006). Coordination of sucking, swallowing, and breathing and oxygen saturation during early infant breast-feeding and bottle-feeding. Pediatric Research, 60(4): 450-455.

Graven S, Browne J. (2008). Auditory development in the fetus and infant. Newborn & Infant Nursing Reviews, 8(4), 187-193.

Graven S, Browne J. (2008). Sensory development in the fetus, neonate, and infant: Introduction and overview. Newborn and Infant Nursing Reviews, 8(4):169-72.

Graven S, Browne J. (2008). Visual development in the human fetus, infant, and young child. Newborn & Infant Nursing Reviews 8(4) 194-201.

Graven S. (2000). Sound and the developing infant in the NICU: Conclusions and recommendations for care. Journal of Perinatology, 20 (8 Pt 2):S88-93.

Graven S. (2006). Sleep and brain development. Clinics in Perinatology, 33(3) 693-706.

Guyer C, Huber R, Fontijn J, Bucher H, Nicolai H, Werner H, Molinari L,  Latal B, Jenni, O. (2012). Cycled light exposure reduces fussing and crying in very preterm infants. Pediatrics, 130(1):e145-51.

Harijan P, Beer C, Glazebrook C, Israel C, Marlow N, Whitelaw A, Johnson S. (2012).  Predicting developmental outcomes in very preterm infants: Validity of a neonatal neurobehavioral assessment. Acta Pediatrica, 101 (e275-81).

Howe T, Sheu C, Hinojosa J, Lin J, Holzman I. (2007). Multiple factors related to bottle-feeding performance in preterm infants. Nursing Research, 56(5):307-311.

Howe T, Sheu C, Hsieh Y, Hsieh C. (2007). Psychometric characteristics of the Neonatal Oral-Motor Assessment Scale in healthy preterm infants. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 49(12), 915-919.

Johnston C, Campbell-Yeo M, Fernandes A, Inglis D, Streiner D, Zee R. (2014). Skin-to-skin care for procedural pain in neonates. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 23:CD008435.

Kanagasabai P, Mohan D, Lewis L, Kamath A, Rao B. (2013). Effect of multisensory stimulation on neuromotor development in preterm infants. Indian Journal of Pediatrics, 80(6), 460-4.

Korja R, Maunu J, Kirjavainen J, Lehtonen L. (2008). Mother-infant interaction is influenced by the amount of holding in preterm infants. Early Human Development, 84(4):257-67.

Krueger C. (2010). Exposure to maternal voice in preterm infants: A review. Advances in Neonatal Care, 10(1), 13-20.

Krueger, C, Parker L, Chiu S, Theriaque D. (2010). Maternal voice and short-term outcomes in preterm infants. Developmental Psychobiology, 52(2), 205-12.

Latva R, Lehtonen L, Salmelin R, Tamminen T. (2004). Visiting less than every day: A marker for later behavioral problems in Finnish preterm infants. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 158(12), 1153-7.

Lau C,  Smith E. (2011). A novel approach to assess oral feeding skills of preterm infants. Neonatology, 100(1), 64-70.

Laudert S, Liu W, Blackington S, Perkins B, Martin S, MacMillan-York E, Graven S, Handyside J. (2007). Implementing potentially better practices to support the neurodevelopment of infants in the NICU. Journal of Perinatology, 27 (S2), S75-S93.

Lester B, Hawes K, Abar B, Sullivan M, Miller R, Bigsby R, Laptook A, Salisbury A, Taub M,

Lagasse L, Cadbury J. (2014). Single family room care and neurobehavioral and medical outcomes in preterm infants. Pediatrics 134(4), 754-760.

Lev-Enacab O, Sher-Censor E, Einspieler C, Daube-Fishman G, Beni-Shrem, S. (2015). The quality of spontaneous movements of preterm infants: Associations with the quality of mother-infant interaction. Infancy, 20, 634-660.

Lickliter R. (2011). The integrated development of sensory organization. Clinics in Perinatology, 38(4), 591-603.

Liu J, Bann C, Lester B, Tronick E, Das A, Lagasse L, Bauer C, Shankaran S, Bada H. (2010). Neonatal neurobehavior predicts medical and behavioral outcome. Pediatrics, 125, 90-8.

Liu W, Laudert S, Perkins B, MacMillan-York E, Martin S, Graven S. (2007). The development of potentially better practices to support the neurodevelopment of infants in the NICU. Journal of Perinatology, 27 (S2), S48-S74.

Ludwig S, Waitzman K. (2007). Changing documentation to reflect Infant-Driven Feeding practice. Newborn and Infant Nursing Reviews, 7(3), 155-160.

Madlinger-Lewis L, Reynolds L, Zarem C, Crapnell T, Inder T, Pineda R. (2014). The effects of alternative positioning on preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit: A randomized clinical trial. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 35(2), 490-7.

Maguire C, Walther F, vanZwieten P, Le Cessie S, Wit J, Veen S. (2009). Follow-up outcomes at 1 and 2 years of infants born less than 32 weeks after Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program. Pediatrics, 123(4), 1081-7.

McGrath J, Braescu A. (2004). State of the science: Feeding readiness in the preterm infant. The Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing, 18(4), 353-70.

Medoff-Cooper B, Ratcliffe S. (2005). Development of preterm infants: Feeding behaviors and Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale at 40 and 44 weeks’ postconceptional age.  Advances in Nursing Science, 28(4), 356-363.

Medoff-Cooper B, Ratcliffe S. (2005). Development of preterm infants: Feeding behaviors and Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale at 40 and 44 weeks postconceptional age. Advances in Nursing Science, 28(4), 356-363.

Mercuri E, Guzzetta A, Laroche S, Ricci D, vanhaastert I, Simpson A, Luciano R, Bleakley C, Frisone M, Haataja L, Tortorolo G, Guzetta F, de Vries L, Cowan F, Dubowitz L. (2003). Neurologic examination of preterm infants at term age: Comparison with term infants. Journal of Pediatrics,142 (6), 647-655.

Milgrom J, Newnham C, Anderson P, Doyle L, Gemmill A, Lee K, Hunt R, Bear M, Inder T. (2010). Early sensitivity training for parents of preterm infants: Impact on the developing brain. Pediatric Research, 67(3), 330-5.

Mizuno K, Ueda A. (2005). Neonatal feeding performance as a predictor of neurodevelopmental outcome at 18 months. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 47(5), 299-304.

Montirosso R, Del Prete A, Bellu R, Tronick E, Borgatti R, Neonatal Adequate Care for Quality of Life Study Group. (2012). Level of NICU quality of developmental care and neurobehavioral performance in very preterm infants. Pediatrics, 129 (5), e1129-37.

Morag I, Ohlsson A. (2013). Cycled light in the intensive care unit for preterm and low birth weight infants. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 8:Cd006982.

Neu M, Robinson J, Schmiege S. (2013). Influence of holding practice on preterm infant development. The American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing, 38(3), 136-43.

Pados B, Park J, Thoyre S, Estrem H, Nix B (2015). Milk flow rates from bottle nipples used for feeding infants who are hospitalized. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 24, 671-79.

Pepino V, Mezzacappa M. (2015). Application of tactile/kinesthetic stimulation in preterm infants: A systematic review. Jornal de Pediatric, 91(3), 213-33.

Peredo D, Hannibal M. (2009). The floppy infant: Evaluation of hypotonia. Pediatric Reviews, 30, 66-76.

Picheansathian W, Woragidpoonpol P, Baosoung C. (2009). Positioning of preterm infants for optimal physiological development: A systematic review. Library of Systematic Review, 7(7):224-59.

Pineda R, Neil J, Dierker D, Smyser C, Wallendorf M, Kidokoro H, Reynolds L, Walker S, Rogers C, Mathur A, Van Essen D, Inder T.  (2014). Alterations in brain structure and neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm infants hospitalized in different neonatal intensive care unit environments. Journal of Pediatrics, 164(1), 52-60.

Pineda R, Stransky K, Rogers C, Duncan M, Smith G, Neil J, Inder T. (2012). The single-patient room in the NICU: Maternal and family effects. Journal of Perinatology, 32(7), 545-51.

Pineda R, Tjoeng T, Vavasseur C, Kidokoro H, Neil J, Inder T. (2013). Patterns of altered neurobehavior in preterm infants within the neonatal intensive care unit. The Journal of Pediatrics, 162(3), 470-476.

Prechtl H. (1997). An early marker for neurological deficits after perinatal brain lesions. Lancet, 349, 1361-63.

Quesada A, Tristao R, Pratesi R, Wolf O. (2014). Hyper-responsiveness to acute stress, emotional problems and poorer memory in former preterm children. Stress, 17 (5), 389-99.

Ranger M, Grunau R. (2014). Early repetitive pain in preterm infants in relation to the developing brain. Pain Management, 4(1), 57-67.

Rattaz C, Goubet N, Bullinger A. (2005). The calming effect of a familiar odor on full-term newborns. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 26(2), 86-92.

Reynolds L, Duncan M, Smith G, Mathur A, Neil J, Inder T, Pineda R. (2013). Parental presence and holding in the neonatal intensive care unit and associations with early neurobehavior. Journal of Perinatology, 33(8), 636-41.

Ross E, Browne J. (2002). Developmental progression of feeding skills: An approach to supporting feeding in preterm infants. Seminars in Neonatology, 7(6), 469-75.
Ross E, Philbin M. (2011). SOFFI: An evidence-based method for quality bottle-feedings of preterm, ill, and fragile infants. Journal of Perinatal and Neonatal Nursing, 25(4), 349-359.

Schulzke S, Kämpfen S, Trachsel D, Patole S. (2014). Physical activity programs for promoting bone mineralization and growth in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Systematic Review, 22(4), CD005387.

Shaker C, Woida A. (2007). An evidence-based approach to nipple feeding in a level III NICU: Nurse autonomy, developmental care, and teamwork. Neonatal Network,26(2), 77-83.

Shaker C. (2012). Feed me only when I’m cueing: Moving from a volume-driven culture in the NICU. Neonatal Intensive Care, 25(3), 27-32.

Shaker C. (2013). Cue-based feeding in the NICU: Using the infant’s communication as a guide. Neonatal Network, 32(6), 404-408.

Silberstein D, Feldman R, Gardner J, Karmel B, Kuint J, Geva R. (2009). The mother-infant feeding relationship across the first year and the development of feeding difficulties in low-risk premature infants. Infancy, 14(5), 501-525.

Silberstein D, Geva R, Feldman R, Gardner J, Karmel B, Rozen H, Kuint J. (2009). The transition to oral feeding in low-risk premature infants: Relation to infant neurobehavioral functioning and mother-infant feeding interaction. Early Human Development, 85(3), 157-162.

Smith G, Gutovich J, Smyser C, Pineda R, Newnham C, Tjoeng H, Vavasseur C, Wallendorf M, Neil J, Inder T. (2011). Neonatal intensive care unit stress is associated with brain development in preterm infants. Annals of Neurology, 70 (4), 541-9.

 Spittle A, Doyle L, Boyd R. (2008). A systematic review of the clinimetric properties of neuromotor assessments for preterm infants during the first year of life. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology,50, 254-266.

Standley J. (2012). Music therapy research in the NICU: An updated meta-analysis. Neonatal Network, 31 (5), 311-6.

Stephens B, Liu J, Lester B, Lagasse L, Shankaran S, Bada H, Bauer C, Da A, Higgins R.  (2010). Neurobehavioral assessment predicts motor outcome in preterm infants. Journal of Pediatrics,156 (3), 366-371.

Sweeney J, Gutierrez T. (2002). Musculoskeletal implications of preterm infant positioning in the NICU. Perinatal and Neonatal Nursing,16 (1), 58-70.

Sweeney J, Heriza C, Blanchard Y, Dusing S. (2010). Neonatal physical therapy; part II: Practice frameworks and evidence-based practice guidelines. Pediatric Physical Therapy, 22(1), 2-16.

Sweeney J, Heriza C, Blanchard Y. (2009). Neonatal physical therapy; part I: Clinical competencies and neonatal intensive care unit clinical training models. Pediatric Physical Therapy, 21(4), 296-307.

Thoyre S, Park J, Pados B, Hubbard C. (2013). Developing a co-regulated, cue-based feeding practice: The critical role of assessment and reflection. Journal of Neonatal Nursing,19(4), 139-48.

Thoyre S, Shaker C, Pridham K. (2005). The early feeding skills assessment for preterm infants. Neonatal Network, 24 (3),  7-16.

Treyvaud K, Lee K, Doyle L, Anderson P. (2014). Very preterm birth influences parental mental health and family outcomes seven years after birth. The Journal of Pediatrics, 164(3), 515-21.

Turnage-Carrier C, McLane K, Gregurich M. (2008). Interface pressure comparison of healthy premature infants with various neonatal bed surfaces. Advances in Neonatal Care, 8(3),176-84.

Vaivre-Douret L, Ennouri K, Jrad I, Garrec C, Papiernik E. (2004). Effect of positioning on the incidence of abnormalities of muscle tone in low-risk, preterm infants. European Journal of Paediatric Neurology, 8(1), 21-34.

Visscher M, Lacina L, Casper T, Dixon M, Harmeyer J, Haberman B, Alberts J, Simakajornboon N. (2015). Conformational positioning improves sleep in premature infants with feeding difficulties. Journal of Pediatrics, 166(1), 44-8.

Webb A, Heller H, Benson C, Lahav A. (2015). Mother’s voice and heartbeat sounds elicit auditory plasticity in the human brain before full gestation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 112(10), 3152-7.

White R, Smith J, Shepley M. (2013). Recommended standards for newborn ICU design, eighth edition. Journal of Perinatology, 33 (Supplement 1):S2-16.

White R. (2007). Recommended standards for the newborn ICU. Journal of Perinatology, 27 (S2), S4-S19.

White-Traut R, Nelson M, Silvestri J, Vasan U, Littau S, Meleedy-Rey P, Gu G, Patel M. (2002). Effect of auditory, tactile, visual, and vestibular intervention on length of stay, alertness, and feeding progression in preterm infants. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 44(2), 91-7.
Williams J, Lee K, Anderson P. (2010). Prevalence of motor-skill impairment in preterm children who do not develop cerebral palsy: A systematic review. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 52(3), 232-7.

Zarem C, Kidokoro H, Neil J, Wallendorf M, Inder T, Pineda R. (2013), Psychometrics of the Neonatal Oral Motor Assessment Scale. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 55(12), 1115-1120.